Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile .  The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception .  In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone.  The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field.  The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.
The traditional standard study has been a four-view sinus series that includes: (1) the Waters view, in which the occiput is tipped down (patient's chin and tip of the nose are against the film surface) to facilitate viewing of the maxillary and frontal sinuses; (2) the Caldwell view, in which the forehead and tip of the nose are placed in contact with the film (this offers superior visualization of the frontal and ethmoid sinuses); (3) the lateral view, in which the sphenoid sinus and the posterior frontal sinus wall are visualized; and (4) the submentovertex view, in which the sphenoid sinuses and posterior ethmoid cells are visualized.
That said, I love this website and all the info & feedback in it. I’ve been suffering for 10+ years from sinusitis and thus far no doctor has been able to help me (multiple allergists, ENTs, primary,etc). Recently I’ve been getting a bad infection that puts me in bed almost every week for a few months now. Will last a few days. Few cocktails over the weekend really seem to trigger it by Mon or Tues, almost everytime. I’ve tried many things both conventional (sterioids,allergy meds, immunoizations,antibiotics,antacids,etc) and natural(pills,irrigations with power irrigator, steam inhalers,etc) with no effect at all. Just recently I came across the whole ‘biofilm theory’ and it sounds reasonable. I’m attempting to address this via sinus irrigation 2x/day for weeks (then going out of town) along with xylitol in my coffee(10grams/day) since I heard putting this in your blood can help systematically (but maybe need to do this in ~4 doses throughout the day).
-Saline Rinse (Premixed: 10 heaping teaspoons/1 gallon)
-Johnson’s Baby Shampoo (2 teaspoons/25oz of power sinus irrigator)
-Xylitol (1 heaping teaspoon/25oz of power sinus irrigator)