Summary author: @DuncanChambler
Summary date: May 2014
Peer-review editor: @stevemathieu75 Share this through your social network:
Acute lung injury is a syndrome with a diagnostic criteria base on hypoxaemia and a classical radiological appearance, with acute respiratory distress syndrome at the severe end of the disease spectrum. Its incidence is common, it is likely to exist outside the intensive care setting and therefore is a condition relevant to all clinicians. Genetically predisposed individuals are subject to environmental triggers which can be intra or extrapulmonary in nature. An inflammatory response causes damage to alveolar epithelial cells and vasculature, impairing gas exchange and can lead to multiple organ failure. Management centres around supportive care and treating the cause, but evidence supports use of low tidal volume ventilatory settings and conservative intravenous fluid strategies. Long term outcomes are related to neuromuscular, cognitive and psychological issues rather than pulmonary, and rehabilitation during recovery needs to focus on this.
Results: Out of 4028 volunteers, 172 (%) tested positive for HBsAg. All 172 serum samples were genotyped by PCR for both HBV and HCV. Out of 172 HBsAg positive samples, 89 (%) showed a single HBV genotype D infection, followed by genotypes A (%), F (%), B (%), E (%), and C (%). Out of 43 positive for HCV by PCR from the two universities and Anklesaria Hospital, % showed infection with 3a, followed by genotypes 5a (%), 6a (%), 3b (%) and 2a (%). Hence, the co-infection rate of both these viruses is 25% (43/172) among HBs Ag positive individuals.